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 Black Buck

The Pride of Ganjam

              

Introduction 


The Black Buck is a scheduled 1 animal under the Wild life Protection Act 1972.The unique beautiful species of Indian antilope(Antelope Cervicapra) known as “Krishnasara” or Baliharina or kala Baudia in different localities of Orissa is an endangered species is commonly found in Bhetanoi-Balipadar areas of Ghumusar South Division of Ganjam-Dist Black buck is considered to be fastest animal in the world next to cheetah . They live in these areas peacefully symbolizing an explanatory form of man-animal harmonious relationship. The local community protects these animals with a socio-religious sentiment prevailing in the  locality. people believe that these animals are harbingers of prosperity  and good fortune.

 

Morphology

 

Black Buck is a medium sized antelope, which stands about 80cm at the shoulder and weights about 40 Kg .They are sexually dimorphic .The males at their initial stage are brown without horns .However their secretion of sexual hormone, males develop a pair of un branched “Cork screw” horns on each side on head and change their body color to elegant Black. The beautiful spiral horns {never shed like deer’s antler) may grow up to 50Cm.The colour  of the body coat is light yellow in young and females. As the male  grown older, the dorsal body colour turns in to black. Males have a pronounced postorbital gland Which exude pungent sticky secretion.

 

HABITAT


The area covered under black buck habitat comes under the  jurisdiction of Aska Range of Ghumusar South Division and Aska and Buguda Tahasil of Bhanjanagar Revinue Sub –Division under Ganjam District and is situated with in the longitude 19-38’N to 19-51’N and latitude84-39’E to 84-08’E

 

The Black Buck habitat covers about 60% cultivated lands/cropped fields ,15% rocky elevations ,10% man made houses and roads , 8% forest covers, 5% water bodies and 2% horticulture forms and waste lands

 

Food

 

Black Bucks live on fresh tender leaves , grass ,crops cereals vegetables and leaves of shrubs and trees. They feed for a along time, select succulent grasses, tender shoots of crops  and plants ,which help them to maintain water balance in their bodies . They can survive without drinking water for a day to week

 

Movement patterns

 

Black Bucks are generous in nature their movement depends upon the following factors :-

 

Availability of fresh vegetation

Availability of water

Human Interference

 

HERD STRUCTURE AND SOCIAL GROUPING

 

The social organization of Black buck s are catagorised in to the following  groups:

 

1.  Mixed herd formed by males and females of different age groups

2.  Harem herd or territorial herd with one territorial male and          females with all age groups

3.  Bachelor herd of all male members

4.   Herd of all female groups

5.   Lone adult male(Wandering )

 

BREEDING

 

Black Bucks breed in all seasons but main rut takes place between February to may. The gestation period is about 5-6 Months .Females of about two years old and above give birth to young ones

 

Life Span

 

The Normal life span of Black buck is about 12-15 years

 

THREAT TO  BLACK BUCKS

 

1      The young ones fall pray to a number of predators such as Wolf, Hyena , Jackal , Pythons, ,Wild pigs , feral dogs, etc

2       Some die in road  accidents  while crossing the roads

3       Some also die due to infighting among them.

4       Man made causes like encroachment, Newly made roads, Dense plantation near habitat. Preparing for pet.

5       Killing by poachers for meat and skin.

 

Contribution of  local community for protection  and conservation 

 

Villagers of local areas are practically involved in in the protection of the Black buck in the vicinity of their villagers. In  case of any death or injury to black buck the villagers immediately bring to the notice of local forest personal and help them to transport the injured animals to local veterinary hospital for treatment.

 

Besides in the year 2005 one Black Buck Management committee, was formed by involving some Wild animal lovers of the concerned villages for the  protection of Black bucks.

 

Population Of  Black Bucks

 

The Population of Black Bucks for last 4 years are given below:

  

Year

Male

Female

Young

Total

2004

       212

487

87

786

2006

306

664

131

1101

2008

411

1123

138

1672

2011

544

1414

223

2181

 


FACILITIES AVAILABLE FOR CONSERVATION OF BLACK BUCK HABITAT


Watch tower : –A wooden tower is available at Bhetanai to see the Black     Bucks  (Known as Kankana Devi Watch Tower, Aska Range).

 

Salt lick : Two salt licks are available one at Bhetanoi  watch Tower another at Ramanda Watch Tower

 

PROTECTION


01. Better protection of black Buck population is achieved mainly due to public consciousness and involvement of wild animal lovers.

02. Ghumusar South Forest Division(Govt of Orissa)

03. Maitri Club (Maitri Club an Animal Welfare Organization  fighting for Animals since 1998 )